Mans Creation and Nature
Of what was man formed in
The Lord God formed
the man from the dust of the ground and
breathed into his nostrils the breath of life,
and the man became a living being. Genesis
What act made him a living
And [God] breathed
into his nostrils the breath of life, and the
man became a living being. Verse 7.
Note The living soul
was not put into the man; but the breath
of life that was put into man made him
man, formed of the earth a living
soul, or creature. Man became a living
being, says the Smith-Goodspeed American
translation. (University of Chicago Press.)
The Hebrew words translated
living soul in this text are nephesh
chayyah, the same expression used in Genesis
1:24, translated living creature.
The word nephesh
occurs 755 times in the Hebrew Old Testament. In
the King James Version the word is translated:
428 times as soul.
For example: Genesis 2:7; 12:5; Numbers 9:13;
Psalm 6:3; Isaiah 1:14.
119 times, life
(lifes, lives). For example: Genesis 1:20,
30; 9:4; 1 Kings 19:14; Job 6:11; Psalm 38:12.
29 times, person.
For example: Numbers 31:19; 35:11, 15, 30;
Deuteronomy 27:25; Joshua 20:3, 9; 1 Samuel
15 times, mind.
For example: Deuteronomy 18:6; Jeremiah 15:1.
15 times, heart.
For example: Exodus 23:9; Proverbs 23:7.
9 times, creature.
Genesis 1:21, 24: 2:19; 9:10, 12, 15, 16;
7 times, body.
(or, dead body), Leviticus 21:11; Numbers 6:6; 9:
6, 7, 10; 19:13; Haggai 2:13.
5 times dead.
Leviticus 19:28; 21:1; 22:4; Numbers 5:2; 6:11.
3 times, man.
Exodus 12:16; 2 Kings 12:4; 1 Chronicles 5:21.
3 times, me.
Numbers 23:10; Judges 16:30; 1 Kings 20:32.
3 times, beast.
2 times, ghost.
Job 11:20; Jeremiah 15:9.
1 time, fish.
One or more times as various
forms of the personal pronouns. (These figures
are from Youngs Analytical Concordance.)
Are other creatures
besides man called living souls?
So God created the
great creatures of the sea and every living and
moving thing with which the water teems,
according to their kinds, and every winged bird
according to its kind. And God saw that it was
good. Genesis 1:21. Now the Lord God
had formed out of the ground all the beasts of
the field and all the birds of the air. He
brought them to the man to see what he would name
them; and whatever the man called each living
creature, that was its name. Genesis 2:19.
Note Look up the nine
instances of nephesh, soul,
translated as creature, and you will
see that they all refer to animals as living
creatures, or, as the words might have been
translated, living souls. On
the phrase nephesh chayyah, living soul or
creature in Genesis 1:24, Adam Clarke says:
A general term to express all creatures
endued with animal life, in any of its infinitely
varied graduations, from the half-reasoning elephant
down to the stupid potto, or lower still,
to the polype, which seems equally to
share the vegetable and animal life.
An examination of the
various occurrences of nephesh in the Old
Testament shows that nephesh describes the
individual rather than being a constituent part
of the individual. It would be more correct,
therefore, to say that a man is a nephesh,
or soul, than that he has a nephesh,
or, soul. True, the expressions
my soul, thy soul, his
soul, etc, occurs frequently, but in most
cases these are simply idiomatic expressions
meaning myself, thyself,
himself, etc. Translators recognizing
this have at times substituted the personal
pronoun. For examples see Psalm 35:25; Proverbs
6:16; 16:26; Isaiah 5:14.
In other instances nephesh
means life. Where such is its
meaning my soul would mean
my life, thy soul, etc.
See 2 Samuel 1:9; Jeremiah 4:30; etc.
In the New Testament the
word translated soul is the Greek psuche.
This is the word that in the Septuagint, the
Greek translation of the Hebrew Old Testament,
translates the Hebrew word nephesh. New
Testament writers used psuche as the
equivalent of nephesh, and did not
attach to psuche the pagan Greek concept
of the allegedly immortal part of a man as
opposed to his body or perishable part. Psuche
is rendered by the following words in our King
58 times, soul.
40 times, life.
For example: Mark 3:4; 10:45; Luke 6:8; 9:56;
John 13:37; Romans 11:3; Revelation 8:9; 12:11.
3 Times, mind.
Acts 14:2; Philippians 1:27; Hebrews 12:3.
1 time, heart.
1 time, heartily
(literally, from the soul) Colossians
Psuche is also used
once in John 10:24 and in 2 Corinthians 12:15, in
idiomatic phrases that are properly translated by
the personal pronoun.
Do others besides man have the
breath of Life?
Every living thing
that moved on the earth perished birds,
livestock, wild animals, all creatures that swarm
over the earth, and all mankind. Everything on
dry land that had the breath of life in its
nostrils died. Genesis 7:21,22.
When man gives up this spirit,
what becomes of it?
And the dust returns
to the ground it came from, and the spirit
returns to God who gave it.
Note The word
translated breath is ruach, which
is defined in Gesenius Lexicon as Ruach:
(1) Spirit, breath, (a)
Breath of the mouth
Hence used of anything
Often used of the vital
(b) Breath of the nostrils,
Breath of air, air in motion, i.e., breeze
(2) Psuche anima, breath,
life, the vital principle, which shows itself in
the breathing of the mouth and nostrils (see No.
1, a, b), whether of man or beasts, Ecclesiastes
3:21; 8:8; 12:7;
(3) The rational mind
or spirit. (a) As the seat of the senses,
affections, and emotions of various kinds
(b) As to the mode of thinking and acting
(c) Of will and counsel
More rarely (d) it
is applied to intellect
(4) The Spirit of God.
Tregelles translation (1875 ed.)
The word spirit in
the Old Testament is always from ruach,
except twice (Job 26:4 and Proverbs 20:27 from neshamah),
Ruach, besides being rendered 232 times as
spirit, is also translated:
28 times, breath.
For example: Genesis 6:17; 7:15, 22; Job 12:10;
Psalms 104:29; 146:4; Ecclesiastes 3:19.
8 times, mind.
Genesis 26:35; Proverbs 29:11; Ezekiel 11:5;
20:32; Daniel 5:20; Habakkuk 1:11.
4 times, blast.
Exodus 15:8; 2 Kings 19:7; Isaiah 25:4; 37:7.
Also translated one or more
times by the following words: anger,
air, tempest, vain.
At death the spirit goes
back to the great Author of life. Having come
from Him, it belongs to God, and man can have it
eternally only as a gift from God, through Jesus
Christ. (Romans 6:23.) When the spirit goes back
to God, the dust, from which mans body was
formed, goes back as it was, to the earth,
and the individual no longer exists as a living,
conscious, thinking being.
Our personal identity
is preserved in the resurrection, though not the
same particles of matter or material substance as
went into the grave. The wondrous works of God
are a mystery to man. The spirit, the character
of man, is returned to God, there to be
preserved. In the resurrection every man will
have his own character. God in His own time will
call forth the dead, giving again the breath of
life, and bidding the dry bones live. The same
form will come forth, but it will be free from
disease and every defeat. It lives again bearing
the same individuality of features, so that
friend will recognize friend. There is no law of
God in nature that shows that God gives back the
identical same particles of matter that composed
the body before death. God shall give the
righteous dead a body that will please Him.
E.G. White in S.D.A. Bible Commentary,
Vol. 6, p. 1093.
From Wrath and Death to Life
Who only have hold of the
He who has the Son
has life; he who does not have the Son of God
does not have life.
1 John 5:12.
Note The individual
sinner has this temporal life; when he yields up
this life, he has no prospect or promise of
eternal life. That can only be received only
Why was Adam driven from Eden
and from the tree of life?
And the Lord God said,
The man has now become like one of us,
knowing good from evil. He must not be allowed to
reach out his hand and take also from the tree of
life and eat, and live forever. Genesis
What was done to keep man away
from the tree of life?
After he drove the man
out, he placed on the east side of the Garden of
Eden cherubim and a flashing sword flashing back
and forth to guard the way to the tree of life.
How are all men in the natural
All of us also lived
among them at one time, gratifying the
cravings of our sinful nature and following after
its desires and thoughts. Ephesians
If the wrath of God abides
on us, of what are we deprived?
Whoever believes in
the Son has eternal life, but whoever rejects the
Son will not see life, for Gods
wrath remains on him. John 3:36.
Through whom can we be saved
from wrath and given immortality?
Since we have been
justified by his blood, how much more shall we be
saved from Gods wrath through him!
Romans 5:9. But it has now been revealed
through the appearing of our Savior, Christ
Jesus, who has destroyed death and has brought
life and immortality to light through the gospel.
2 Timothy 1:10.
Who only possesses inherent
Which God will bring
about in his own time God, the blessed and
only Ruler, the King of kings and Lord of lords,
who alone is immortal and lives in unapproachable
light, whom no one has seen or can see. To him be
honor and might forever. Amen.
1 Timothy 6:15,16.
Note This word for
immortality as applied to God is not aphtharsia,
incorruptibility, which is used
twice, in 2 Timothy 1:10 and Romans 2:7, but athanasia,
deathlessness, which is
also used in 1 Corinthians 15:53, 54. God is the
only being who possess original life or
immorality in Himself. All others must receive it
from God. (See John 5:26; 6:27; 10:10, 27, 28;
Romans 6:23; 1 John 5:11.)
To whom is eternal life
To those who by
persistence in doing good seek glory,
honor and immortality, he will give eternal
life. Romans 2:7.
Note One does not
need to seek for a thing that he already
possesses. The fact that we are to seek for
immortality is proof in itself that we do not now
Again, it would mar the
felicity of ones employment in heaven could
he look upon earth and see his friends and
relatives suffering from persecution, want, cold,
or hunger, or sorrowing for the dead. Gods
way is best that all sentient life,
animation, activity, thought, and consciousness
should cease at death, and that all should wait
till the resurrection for their eternal reward.
(See Hebrews 11:39, 40.)
When will the faithful be
changed to immortality?
Listen, I tell you a
mystery: We will not all sleep, but we will all
be changed in a flash, in the twinkling of
an eye, at the last trumpet. For the
trumpet will sound, the dead will be raised
imperishable, and we will be changed. 1
Corinthians 15:51, 52.
What is then to be swallowed
When the perishable
has been clothed with the imperishable, and the
mortal with immortality, then the saying that is
written will come true: Death has been
swallowed up in victory. Verse 54. (See
also verse 57.)
Note Isaiah 25:8
says, he will swallow up death in victory;
and the Lord God will wipe away tears from off
all faces; and the rebuke of his people will be
taken away from all the earth: For the Lord has
spoke it. When Christ comes in the clouds
of heaven, the amazing transformation from mortal
to immortal takes place, both of the righteous
dead and the righteous living. Then regenerated
man is completely saved beyond all possibilities
of death and will be no longer troubled with this
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